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Sample Essay Paper on Reflection on Morality

Reflection on Morality

It is often a daunting task to come up with a succinct definition of the term “morality” or giving an exact explanation of what it entails. Over the years, there have been heated discussions and debates on the issue of morality with people having varying opinions and perceptions of the moral and immoral. In fact, it is difficult or close to impossible for one to come up with a correct perception of what he or she deems moral or immoral. In most cases, what one person considers moral in one context may not be moral in another context. This is mainly attributed to the fact that the moral aspect of individuals is dependent on the culture of an individual. With varying cultures in today’s society, it cannot be doubted that people’s perceptions of morality also differ. A common question in this regard is whether a person’s actions can make them immoral if they are in a society focusing on different definitions of morality (Acton, 1970). Therefore, moral and immoral are constructs of society.

Morality is often more than the normal way of life, and thus, it is subject to changes. Unlike other constructed permanent societal beliefs, morality appears to be more dynamic. It is similar to other cultural aspects that often change, that is, what is deemed immoral today could be acceptable in future society. In addition to culture, morality is dependent on or changes according to the dominant religion. Religion in itself influences the cultural practices of a society implying that a society’s morality is highly likely to be developed in line with the religion in place or lack thereof. For instance, in secular societies, what is considered moral or not is different and depends on the various sections of the secular society. In such cases, what is seen as moral may be enforced by the beliefs and practices of the society whereas other may be influenced by how the society is run.

Universal Law and Morality

Whether an action is moral or immoral can be determined by the application of what is known as universal law. Universal law, also known as the universal principle, refers to concepts of legal legitimacy actions whereby the said principles alongside rules governing the conduct of human beings that are universal in their acceptability and applicability are considered to be legitimate. The formula for universal law outlines that one should act only according to that maxim through which he or she can at the same time will that it becomes a universal law (Bachour, 2014). A section of philosophers has taken and considered the formula of universal law to summarize and determine moral reasoning, as well as to determine whether an action is moral or immoral. According to universal law, the first thing that one is expected to do is to formulate a maxim enshrining his or her reasoning for acting as he or she proposes. Second, one is expected to recast the said maxim as a universal law of nature that governs all rational agents holding that all must, in line with natural law, act as oneself proposes to act in such circumstances (Johnson & Cureton, 2016).

Third, according to universal law, one must take into account whether his or her maxim is conceivable in a world that is governed by this law of nature. If that happens, then the fourth expectation is that one must ask himself or herself whether he or she would or could rationally be willing to act on the maxim in such a world (Johnson & Cureton, 2016). In the event that one could rationally be willing to act on the maxim, his or her action can be said to be morally permissible. It is important to note that one’s maxim can fail one of the steps. For instance, if one’s maxim fails the third step, it is expected that one must refrain from acting on that maxim since action on the same could be deemed immoral or morally impermissible. In the event that one's maxim fails the fourth step, one is expected to pursue a policy that can admit of such exceptions and help to determine whether the probable action is moral or immoral. It is only when a person’s maxim passes all four steps that an action can be deemed morally permissible (Acton, 1970).

Humanity Formula and Morality

The “formula of humanity,” also known as “humanity as an end,” plays a crucial role in determining whether an action is moral or immoral. Kant, while focusing on the formula of humanity, argues that it is foolish for one to treat humanity as a means of attaining any other end (The Formula of Humanity, n.d.). According to Kant, humanity is an end in itself meaning that it is valuable. One of the ends in humanity, according to Kant, is happiness. This means that human beings often do everything possible including interacting and socializing with others, as well as engaging in various programs to make themselves happy. Kant notes that it is foolish, unreasonable, and unacceptable for one to treat humanity as a means to anything else such as happiness. That is, an action whereby one uses his or her fellow human beings to arrive at an end such as happiness or satisfaction should be deemed immoral or morally wrong. According to Kant’s moral realism, the fact that the categorical imperative (CI) depends on humanity’s existence as an end in itself means that the CI ought to forbid any action that appears to treat humanity merely as a means (The Formula of Humanity, n.d.). That is, the formula of humanity emphasizes that one must act in a way that he or she uses humanity, whether in his or her own person or the person of any other, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means (The Formula of Humanity, n.d.).

In line with the humanity formula, an action that would be considered immoral is whereby a person commits suicide to avoid continued misery. In such an action, the person uses or treats his or her humanity merely as a means. It can be said that the person prefers to trade his or her humanity for happiness, which in itself is an end. Another example of an action that can be deemed immoral based on the idea of the humanity formula is where one gives a lying promise to defraud another person. In such a case, it is evident that one is using or treating the other person’s humanity merely as a means to an end. Of course, the promisor is unlikely to succeed without giving the promise a false belief. Seemingly, the promisor uses the promisee’s power of belief merely as a means to an end, and this is morally unacceptable. Moreover, a person who appears to be neglecting his or her natural talents seems to be acting immorally based on the ideas of the humanity formula. The fact that one chooses not to develop his or her own talents for the sake of realizing happiness or being comfortable means that he or she is using own humanity merely as a means, which is morally wrong or unacceptable. Further, an action where a person works full time for the happiness of others can be considered morally wrong. What is important in life is achieving the end, which, in most cases, is one’s happiness. Harmonizing one’s conduct with this end of humanity could imply contributing toward realizing the happiness of others, and this is morally unacceptable. Kant stresses that it would be wrong and unreasonable to treat humanity in oneself merely as a means to the others’ end (The Formula of Humanity, n.d.).

Utilitarianism and Morality

Utilitarianism as a theory also plays a part when it comes to determining the morality or immorality of an action. In essence, utilitarianism is the philosophical theory or view revolving around how humans should evaluate a wide range of concepts involving the choices they make or face. Utilitarians believe that some of the concepts that can be evaluated include actions, policies, laws, moral codes, and character traits (Driver, 2009). Utilitarianism in itself is a form of consequentialism as it is based on the idea that the consequences of an action, policy, or law determine whether it is good or bad and whether it is right or wrong. That is, whatever one is evaluating, he or she is tasked with choosing what he or she believes will produce the best results. Utilitarians insist that people should choose the option that helps in the maximization of utility or that produces the largest amount of good. Bentham’s view of hedonism outlines that the only thing that is good is happiness or pleasure. Thus, any action that helps one to achieve pleasure or realize happiness can be deemed morally right according to Bentham (Driver, 2009). For a long time, there have been disagreements among people about whether judgments of right and wrong should be based on actual consequences or foreseeable consequences. Such an issue possibly arises when the actual effects of an action are different from what is expected. For instance, the will of a person who, in 1938, saved another person from drowning can be generally regarded as morally right. In fact, such a person can be praised by the community for his action. For example, the person saved from drowning can be Adolf Hitler. Hitler is renowned for several killings and suffering that engulfed Europe between 1938 and 1945. Basing on the actual consequences of the rescuer’s actions, it can be said that what he did was morally wrong because, by letting the man (Adolf Hitler) drown, millions of other people might have been saved from unnecessary killings and suffering at the time.

Several other actions from the layman’s point of view are morally wrong but are morally right from the utilitarian perspective. For instance, the action or move by a judge to convict an innocent person of a crime and impose severe punishment on the person to prevent riots that could potentially cause several deaths can be deemed morally acceptable from the utilitarian point of view (Driver, 2009). Also, utilitarians believe that it is morally right for a doctor to kill one healthy person and further use the person’s organs for life-saving transplants aimed at saving five people from death (Driver, 2009). Moreover, utilitarians believe that it is morally right for one to make a false promise if through that he or she creates slightly more well-being and happiness than making a true promise.

Kantian Ethics and Morality

Immanuel Kant is a renowned opponent of utilitarianism. Thus, Kantian ethics suggests that the rightness or wrongness of an action does not depend primarily on the action’s consequences but on whether the action fulfills its duty or expectations. Based on this idea, Kant believed that certain actions must be prohibited even in situations where the actions are likely to bring about more happiness than the alternative actions (Banham, 2007). According to Kantian ethics, two common questions that should be asked when one decides to act is whether he or she can rationally will that everyone acts as they propose to act or whether the action respects the goals of human beings rather than merely using it for individual or selfish purposes. Kant suggests that in the event the answer to these questions is no, then one must not act (Banham, 2007). Kantian ethics suggest a close connection between morality and categorical imperatives. To understand this connection, it is important to understand what categorical imperatives are. Kant defines categorical imperatives as unconditional demands such as "do not cheat on your taxes." As such, Kant insists that morality must be based on the categorical imperative since morality is such that one is commanded by it and one cannot claim that a categorical imperative does not apply to him or her.

Kant argues that the rightness or wrongness of an action depends on the motivation of their actions rather than the goodness of the consequences of their actions. Motivation, in this case, implies what drives one to act in a certain way. This means that a person’s actions motivated by emotions or desires cannot be deemed moral. A perfect example is a case where two people are out drinking together till late in the night and later decide to drive home drunk in different directions. If one person comes across and knocks down a pedestrian, his actions are morally unacceptable. However, the fact that the other person did not come across or knock down a pedestrian does not mean that he acted morally. If both people acted for the right reasons, then both of them are morally worthy even if the actions by one of them, unfortunately, led to bad consequences.

Humans Acting on Reason or Inclination and Connection to Morality

According to Aristotle, inclination can be simply defined with the statement “all men by their nature desire to know.” Further proposals showed that humans have four natural inclinations including a natural inclination to the preservation of life, an inclination to procreation, an inclination to sociability, as well as an inclination to knowledge. In the modern philosophy of ethics, however, inclination is viewed in the context of moral worth or morality. According to Kant, acting out of pure duty may have the highest value but no moral worth. In this regard, a perfect example is a shopkeeper who continually charges fair prices with the aim of building goodwill and repeating business. In case the shopkeeper continues with the practice because of mere inclination rather than seeing the sense of duty, although the shopkeeper's action of keeping the prices fair may be conforming with duty, it may lack true moral worth. That is, the shopkeeper's action may be deemed immoral.

From a personal viewpoint, I would agree with both the Universal Law and ethics that suggest that people should do the right thing just because it is the right thing. The universal law, for instance, outlines that people should act only according to what maxim through which they can the same time will that it become a universal law. I would not support the idea of killing innocent people to save a large population. According to Kantian ethics, certain actions must be prohibited even in situations whereby the actions are likely to bring about more happiness or satisfaction as compared to the alternative actions. I am of the opinion that the focus should be more on the motivations behind various actions rather than the consequences of the actions. Moreover, I support Kant's humanity formula that suggests that it is not morally right to use humanity as a means to an end. This is common in the modern society where communities want to achieve satisfaction or realize happiness through actions such as female genital mutilation (FGM). FGM is an example of using a person’s humanity to reach an end, which is happiness or satisfaction. This is morally unacceptable meaning that governments must intervene in cultural rituals such as FGM.

 

References

Acton, H. B. (1970). The Supreme Principle of Morality: Universal Law. In Kant’s Moral Philosophy (pp. 21-29). Palgrave, London. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-349-00761-5_5

Bachour, O. (2014). Kantian Ethics and the Formula of Humanity: Towards Virtues and Ends (Doctoral dissertation, Université d'Ottawa/University of Ottawa). Retrieved from https://ruor.uottawa.ca/bitstream/10393/30336/1/Bachour_Omar_2014_thesis.pdf

Banham, G. (2007). Kant's moral theory. British Journal for the history of philosophy15(3), 581-593. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09608780701445136?journalCode=rbjh20

Driver, J. (2009, March 27). The History of Utilitarianism. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/utilitarianism-history/

Johnson, R., & Cureton, A. (2016, July 07). Kant's Moral Philosophy. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/#ForUniLawNat

The Formula of Humanity. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://myweb.ecu.edu/mccartyr/GW/FormulaOfHumanity.asp

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