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Sample Essay Paper on Challenges and Opportunities Associated with a Virtual Team

Challenges and Opportunities Associated with a Virtual Team

The current dynamic work environment has created a situation in which companies are shifting from an individual-based towards a teamwork-work based performance model. Globalization has also led to an increase in globalized virtual teams that adopt working methods that are different from the traditional teams due to the reliance on innovative technology for information dissemination and communication. Due to technology, virtual teams can organize work activities through video-conferencing, teleconferencing, and teleworking. Unlike traditional teams that are based on face-to-face interaction, virtual teams rely on web-based communication. Amidst the various benefits such as cutting travel and office-space costs and overcoming temporal separations, virtual teams encounter numerous challenges, such as communication barriers, unmanageable diversity, lack of trust, and difficulty in time management.

Challenges Associated with Virtual Teams

Lack of Trust

One of the major challenges hindering successful virtual team functioning is trust. Studies show that trust remains a crucial variable for all forms of collaboration, including team effectiveness, sharing of feedback, conflict resolution, and discussing issues. The level of trust in a team has a significant impact on the performance of the team and sets the stage for collaboration and coordination amongst team members. In the case of a virtual team, trust is important as the interaction is based on computer-mediated communication tools, which are superficial, uncertain, and impersonal (Lilian 2014, p. 1252). It is hard to build and maintain trust in a geographically dispersed collaboration. The difficulty in building and maintaining trust may be associated with the lack of strong relationships that would otherwise be in a traditional physical team, given the challenges faced in inferring others' intentions and the lack of nonverbal cues. According to Lilian (2014), trust is also dependent on interaction frequencies that are obviously low in a virtual team (p. 1254). In a virtual team, trust is fragile due to the differences across culture, organization, distance, time, and unexpected disruptions.

International companies can hardly foster collaboration due to the lack of face-to-face communication. Bos et al. (2002, p. 139) investigated the challenges associated with trust through the evaluation of different communication methods, including audiovisual, audio, face-to-face, text-based, and FaceTime tools. Bos et al. (2002) found that lack of verbal cues, facial expressions, body language, and voice inflections can delay the decision of team members to trust their leaders. Fragility in trust is common in virtual collaboration than it is in face-to-face communication. Moreover, communication through text was found to be the worst in maintaining trust, whereas audio and audiovisual technologies had some effect on fragile and delayed trust. In agreement with this study, Breuer, Hüffmeier, and Hertel (2016) found that the reliability, usefulness, and effectiveness of CMC technology affect trust among virtual team members.

Face-To-Face and Informal Communication

Communication among team members is also a key challenge associated with virtual teams. Communication predicts teamwork outcomes, such as increased commitment, productivity, and better performance. Buder (2011) notes that informal communication in a collated setting makes up 75 minutes of every employee’s workday. The exchanges always occur during casual encounters and after meetings, which consequently affect collaboration. In contrast, virtual teams have a more formal communication approach that focuses on work-related subjects. This approach limits the opportunity for unintended or informal communication that may be witnessed in parking lots or hallway. In turn, this perspective reduces the ability of virtual teams to share ideas. Informal conversations facilitate task awareness and trust that may help to foster cohesiveness in the long run. Audio technology removes visual cues and distorts verbal cues. Audiovisuals also constraint virtual conversations and mask visual and verbal cues. Virtual teams that fully rely on CMC are more likely to have diminished commitment to their teams and have a negative effect.

Distance and Time

Distance is also a major challenge faced by virtual team members. According to Cummings (2011), distance is physical when caused by geographical disparity or organization size or time zone, and operational when considering the opportunities for face-to-face meetings and communication as well as the size of the team. Physical distance and differing time zones may create an unnecessary burden for the team members (Cummings, 2011, p. 25). Distance can lead to incompatible schedules; thus, delaying projects, which can only be overcome with better planning. Differing time zones cause breakdowns in communication, including difficulty in adjusting to new work policies and increasing the need for clarification and rework. Additionally, different working hours cause coordination delays (Lilian, 2014, p. 1260). For example, a distant member may not be available when his/her expertise is needed. The unavailability may cause team members in need of help to make assumptions, which might cause rework when the assumptions are wrong.


Diversity of an international organization entails various factors that present challenges to virtual teams. Collaboration in a team gets easier when the members have a common ground in the form of having shared experiences, mental models, or shared vocabulary (Kramer, Shuffler, and Feitosa 2017, p. 607). These components are crucial in a virtual team as they allow for easy communication through technology. However, Schmidtke and Cummings (2017) noted that the more virtuality increases, the more mental models get complex, thus, affecting teamwork negatively (p. 661). Schmidtke and Cummings (2017) also found that the accuracy and similarity of mental models decrease with an increase in virtuality. A lack of common ground leads to difficulty in building trust and holding effective communication (Kramer et al., 2017, p. 607). The phenomenon limits the ability of team members to communicate or retain significant contextual information (competing responsibilities, location-specific standards and processes, pressure from teammates, and local customs or holidays) about teammates in different locations, which, in turn, hinders performance and collaborative interactions.

Common ground is important to understand the most salient part of communication or messages, which may be challenging due to the restricted feedback. The lack of commonality can lead to problems in interpreting messages, making it difficult to make decisions. Additionally, lack of common grounds as a result of diversity can lead to uneven distribution of information, causing teammates to have misunderstandings that cannot be rectified (Leung et al., 2011, p. 178). As part of common ground, socio-cultural distance caused by surface ad deep-level diversity is associated with lower levels of cohesion and satisfaction as well as high conflict levels and has a negative impact on team performance. Different aspects of socio-cultural diversity affect the effectiveness of communication among virtual teams. For instance, teams with long-term orientation culture are more likely to delay success for the purpose of future gain while those with short-term orientation culture are more focused on the immediate needs of the team (Leung et al., 2011, p. 179). As a result, long-term oriented team members would adopt communication tools with high informational value, while short-term oriented members would prefer low informational value tools.

Opportunities Associated with a Virtual Team

Efforts by international organizations can present opportunities for successful virtual team management. Thinking beyond logistics and cost savings is crucial to consider human resource strategies that can encourage working remotely. Virtual teams are associated with several opportunities.

Having the Right Team

The composition of a team can present an opportunity for effective virtual management. An organization cannot be successful without a team with the skills for virtual teamwork. Schmidtke and Cummings (2017) found that successful virtual team members have a lot in common, including high emotional intelligence, good communication skills, ability to work independently, and a high level of resilience. Such teams are also aware and sensitive to other cultures within the organization (Schmidtke and Cummings 2017, p. 665). When creating a virtual team, leaders should screen the qualities of the members and assess both their strengths and weaknesses, then train and coach them to become effective team players. Moreover, a team with defined roles can overcome the associated challenges of virtuality. Raisinghani et al. (2010) identify three tires of a team: core, operational, and outer. The core is the top-level management that includes executives responsible for the organizational strategy. On the other hand, the operational team makes daily decisions pertaining to the organization's function, and the out network consisting of members working on specific stages of a project. By utilizing the different experiences at different management levels, international companies can greatly maximize on virtual teams.

The Right Leadership

A key predictor of a successful virtual team is having experienced leadership. Leaders can minimize risks associated with virtual teams using group decision tools such as video-conferencing, creating trust, having shared understanding, and promoting knowledge management (Trivedi and Desai, 2012, p. 33). Since trust forms the basis of a successful virtual team, every leader should have the leadership-related skills, traits, and behavior patterns that enhance trust in the virtual environment. According to Shuffler et al. (2010), leaders who enhance coherence, diminish uncertainty, promote joint efforts, and set expectations create a positive climate to meet the established organizational goals and effective decision making (p. 5). Everyone should be mentally engaged and mentally present during virtual meetings. The leader should explain his or her policy and call on the members to share their thoughts.

A virtual communication setting usually lacks physical contact, and as such, may generate problems like information diffusion, misunderstandings, and knowledge management. Effective leaders must develop new communication skills that help to create socializing activities for the team to foster the feeling of togetherness and promote inclusion in the team (Trivedi and Desai, 2012, p. 34). Leaders of virtual teams have to compensate for the gap through diversified and active use of communication technology and showcasing motivating behavior to address the issue of physical contact further (Trivedi and Desai, 2012, p. 35). The leader must also design explicit activities that address competing demands resulting from the diverse group, promote team building, address communication ambiguity, and establish a close relationship with the team members.

The Right Technology

Harnessing the right technology enables virtual teams to integrate all types of technology for better communication. The broad category of technologies that form the infrastructure of virtual teamwork includes desktop video-conferencing systems, collaborative software systems, and intranet/internet systems. Desktop video-conferencing systems enable team members to share information and applications. For example, users can share documents, sketch out ideas, and analyze data via a central dashboard. Contrary to a traditional work setting where people would be working around an office computer or a conference table, the technologies help team members to collaborate and share data easily. Intranet and internet services provide international organizations with the option of disseminating information and enhancing communication among employees. They allow teams to archive text, audio, visual, and numerical data in a readable and understandable format.

Reflection on the Challenges and Opportunities with Virtual Teams

Reading various literature and knowledge gained through the course reveals the numerous challenges experienced by virtual teams. In a multi-cultural setting, a major communication challenge is language barrier. When team members are unable to communicate in a common language, some will lag behind because of a lack of understanding. The team itself would delay its decisions as it simultaneously works towards keeping all the members highlighted. Throughout the course, I learned that some of our group members had trouble conceptualizing classroom content because English is not their first language. We would take more time elaborating on the course context instead of directly addressing the objectives. At times, I wished to express myself more objectively using gestures and body language, although that was not possible through virtual communication. However, opportunities to enhance virtual teams have been clearly outlined, including selecting the right team, having the right technology, and recruiting the right leaders.

Reference List

Bos, N., Olson, J., Gergle, D., Olson, G., & Wright, Z., 2002, April. Effects of four computer-mediated communications channels on trust development. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 135-140).

Breuer, C., Hüffmeier, J. & Hertel, G., 2016. Does trust matter more in virtual teams? A meta-analysis of trust and team effectiveness considering virtuality and documentation as moderators. Journal of Applied Psychology101(8), p.1151.

Buder, J., 2011. Group awareness tools for learning: Current and future directions. Computers in Human Behavior27(3), pp.1114-1117.

Cummings, J.N., 2011. Geography is alive and well in virtual teams. Communications of the ACM54(8), pp.24-26.

Kramer, W.S., Shuffler, M.L., & Feitosa, J., 2017. The world is not flat: Examining the interactive multidimensionality of culture and virtuality in teams. Human Resource Management Review27(4), pp.604-620.

Leung, K., Bhagat, R., Buchan, N., Erez, M., & Gibson, C.B., 2011. Beyond national culture and culture-centricism: An integrating perspective on the role of culture in international business. Journal of International Business Studies42, pp.177-181.

Lilian, S.C., 2014. Virtual teams: Opportunities and challenges for e-leaders. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences110, pp.1251-1261.

Raisinghani, M., Arora, A., Baylor, E., Brown-Philips, S., Coleman, C., & Craig, K., 2010. Virtual project management of globally outsourced IT projects. International Journal of Management & Information Systems (IJMIS)14(5).

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