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Sample Essay Paper on Critical Literature Review on Homeland Security

Critical Literature Review on Homeland Security

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security works to improve the internal security of the United States. This department has several responsibilities, including monitoring cybersecurity, terrorist activities, and emergency response to human-made and natural disasters, customs, border, and enforcement of immigration. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2011, the Department of Homeland Security was formed, and Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge was appointed as the first director of the Office of Homeland Security in the White House. This office was charged with the responsibility of overseeing and coordinating a comprehensive national strategy to safeguard the country against terrorist attack as well as responding to any future attacks. In November 2002, the Congress passed the Homeland Security Act, and the Department of Homeland Security formally came into being as an independent department with the responsibility of coordinating and unifying the efforts of the national homeland security. The department became fully operational in March 2003. Since its establishment, the Department of Homeland Security has faced criticism and conflict has existed between bodies of international law and the law applied under homeland security.  This paper is a critical review of the literature on Homeland Security by summarizing the article and giving the position of the authors. It then analyses the articles and presents the practical application of the information presented in the article.

Critical Review of Article 1 Implementing Homeland Security Policy in the U.S. States: A Comparative State Study by Christopher Mathias Published in April 2012

Summary

In this article, the author’s main point is that implementation of Homeland Security policy has not been effective at the state level because implementing officials at the state level does not have what it takes for maintaining NIMS compliance.  Second, according to the author, states and their agencies do not exercise their discretion accordingly.  Third, states should pass Homeland Security funding to cities and towns.

Author’s Position

According to the author, since the establishment of HS after the 2001 terrorist attacks, the progress of the implementation of Homeland Security policy has been very slow. Thus, according to the author, federal and local governments should also implement Homeland Security policy just as it is done at the state level to fasten the implementation process down to cities and towns. States should serve as the conduit of fund from the federal government to local government, which implies that state implementation behavior of Homeland Security impacts on the implementation capacities of local government.  According to the author, it is important to create organization-level flexibility to produce efficiencies that can lead to better use of federal funding by the states, their cities, and towns.

Article Analysis

Although the author's position speaks volume, the suggestions made in the article may not be very generalizable because the methodological approach that was used to collect data was very narrow. For instance, the author used only two states out of the 50 in this study and what he gathered from these two states (Massachusetts and Idaho) may not apply in others like North Carolina and Texas. Second, the author used the interview as a method of data collection, but the approach was subjected to systematic sampling bias because only enthusiastic officials were likely to volunteer. In collecting the data, the author could have considered the opinion of both opponents and proponents of the NIMS implementation policy. By taking only the proponents of implementation policy, it is most likely that the interviewees could withhold crucial information that they view as undesirable hence the need to consider both the proponents and opponents.

Practical Applications

Based on this study, several lessons can be learned. For instance, the implementation of Homeland Security's NIMS policy may be successful if both the public officials and the public at large are involved.  Second, based on the information gleaned in this article, it is evident that the Homeland Security ecosystem is complex; hence, it is important to incorporate states and their local cities and towns in HS policy implementation. The threat that this article outline is the slow implementation of HS policy at the state level that is attributed partly to the lack of enough funding and centralization of the Department of Homeland Security at the federal level. However, the federal government can utilize the states as the available opportunity to devolve policy implementation. Although the mentioned endeavor can be achieved, limited funding to facilitate the process is a potential barrier because according to the author, 80% of Homeland Security funds are controlled by the federal government. The government’s involvement makes it difficult for states to implement Homeland Security's NIMS compliance policy. When states, public officials, and the public at large are incorporated in policy implementation, then the whole process will be faster, and both the states and the federal government will have effective Homeland Security. 

Critical Review of Realigning Community Policing in a Homeland Security Era by Alfred Stanford Titus Published in 2017

Summary

The author makes several main points in this article. The first one is the introduction and implementation of Homeland Security after the 2001 terrorist attack has led to the decline in community policing, which was effective between 1997 and 2000. Second, funding of community policing has declined considerably while that of Homeland Security has significantly increased. Third, local police departments have integrated Homeland Security with community policing, and this integration can be said to have allowed for the existence of community policing in the Homeland Security era.

Author’s Position

The position of the author in this article is that the priorities of the local police department have shifted from community policing to homeland security, and this has enhanced the fight against terrorism. The author argues that despite the shift from community policing to Homeland Security, community Policing remains relevant, although the current funding system does not maintain its existence. The position of the author is that it was necessary to maintain community policing in the wake of Homeland Security because its benefit is evident at the community level.

Analysis of the Article

The information presented in this study is based on the quantitative approach and descriptive statistic research. As such, the author adopted a mixed method in his study. This method is generally complex, and the author was unable to resolve the discrepancies that arose in the interpretation of the finding. For instance, at some point, the author acknowledges that Homeland Security is effective in the fight against terrorism and has attracted more funding from the federal government. He also acknowledges that community policing is equally important and continues to thrive in the era of Homeland Security. In these two statements, the author fails to elaborate on how the two co-exist because one would ask how community policing continues to thrive in the era of Homeland Security because its funding has declined. In this case, the author would have gone ahead and explained how the integration of community policing and Homeland Security works as well as describing the funding source community policing after making it clear that there is a shift in funding. Additionally, the author should have clearly described the relevance of community policing in the wake of Homeland Security Era and the success that has been made by the integration of the two. Despite this research gap, the sampling method used by the researcher is generalizable because all the police departments in the U.S. were involved in the study. The stratified sampling method used by the author could be said to have reduced sampling bias, which is a common challenge, especially with qualitative research.

Practical Applications

According to the information contained in this article, the lesson that can be learned is that despite the introduction of Homeland Security, community policing is equally important hence the government should consider increasing the funding for community policing to complement Homeland Security in fighting against terrorism among others. The threat that this reading outline is the introduction of the Department of Homeland Security that has usurped power from the community policing department. According to the author, the mentioned issue has led to police-community conflict, which is a clear indication of the need to integrate Homeland Security and community policing but not abandoning it or giving less attention by reducing its funding.  According to the reading, there is strength in integrating the two departments, and this remains one of the future strategies for strengthening the Department of Homeland Security. Nonetheless, the potential barrier to this integration is a lack of harmonization between the local government department of policing and the federal government Department of Homeland Security. For these two entities to work together, there must be an agreement between them, but most importantly, the federal government must embrace the role of community policing if it is committed to protecting its internal security. Implementation of the integration process of the two departments if not balanced my result in the duplication of roles leading to wastage of resources in internal security issues.

Critical Review of Developing a Homeland Security Curriculum: A Case Study in Outcomes-Based Education Using the Delphi Method by Daniel Cutrer Published in 2012

Summary

The author acknowledges that Homeland Security is a nascent discipline, but a national accreditation body that can promulgate an outcome-based curriculum for future Homeland Security professionals that would want to acquire a university degree in the same is absent.  The author identifies a list of academic areas and the list of curriculum-based programs that the institutions of higher learning can utilize to offer a unified curriculum that would achieve a measurable skill, knowledge, and abilities to a student to successfully perform as a Homeland Security professional in this era.

Author’s Position

The position of the author of this article is that there is a need to develop a standardized Homeland Security curriculum since there is no national accreditation body to validate the homeland security education programs that are offered across the nation. The author's main argument is that the Homeland Security programs must have a set of metrics by which the programs can be measured to ensure continuity of quality improvement to ensure the efficacy of Homeland Security.

Article Analysis

The author's recommendation in the establishment of a standardized curriculum for Homeland Security in a higher learning institution and the establishment of accreditation body is a noble idea, especially in this era where there are security challenges not only in the U.S. but globally. The proposed core academic areas can be of significance in making future homeland security professionals skillful and knowledgeable about the ever-evolving security challenges. However, the author has proposed the core academic areas without giving the rationale for the implementation of such. For instance, one of the core academic areas proposed by the author is "All Hazards Threats Critical Analysis." The author clearly states the objectives that can be met by introducing this area into Homeland Security curriculum but has failed to give scientific evidence to support the proposal, which suggests that proposals put across are theoretical hence may not lead to the desired result. It will have been better if the author provides proof of the effectiveness of the proposed core academic areas.

Practical Applications

The lesson learned in this article is that security challenges are evolving in this new era; hence, there is a need for the implementation of a standardized curriculum for Homeland Security. There is no accreditation body for Homeland Security degrees, and this may result in incompetent Homeland Security professionals in the future. The threat revealed by this reading is that poorly developed curriculum in the institutions of higher learning may result in half-baked Homeland Security professionals, which is likely to pose a major security challenge to the U.S. Similarly, Homeland Security professionals may not work in unison due to the variations in the training they acquired in different institutions. However, by developing a standardized curriculum as proposed by the author, it will be easy to release competent Homeland Security professionals that are equal to the task of securing the country. The only barrier to implementation of the proposed ideas of the development of standard curriculum may be a lack of proper coordination between the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Higher Education. As such, there is a need for the two departments to work in coordination when implementing a standardized curriculum for Homeland Security in higher learning institutions.

Critical Review of Security and Prosperity: Reexamining the Connection Between Economic, Homeland and National Security by Bijan Karimi Published in 2012

Summary

The author in this article examines the relationship between economic, homeland, and national security. The author found the definition of these three security elements to be cloudy, and the definition is not provided in the security context. The key findings in this article are that; a security relationship does not exist between these three elements and that some metamorphic forces shape the security relationship between these three elements.

Author’s Position

The position of the author in this article is that for the Department of Homeland Security to be more effective; it should be integrated with the Department of Defense. Such a step would lead to the creation of a department of prosperity that can continue to combat violence and extremism not only in the U.S. but abroad.

Article Analysis

The author provides valuable insight into the underlying reasons for the integration of the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Defense as one of the ways that can enhance both internal and external security.  However, this integration might be challenging because it adds the responsibility to the department of defense, making it overburdened. The two departments should remain independent because the Department of Homeland Security has proven to be effective as a standalone entity to mitigate internal security challenges. 

Practical Application

The Department of Homeland Security has been working purposely to mitigate internal security issues. Integrating it with the department might pose logistical and operational challenges leading to the creation of a loophole that terrorists can take advantage of and jeopardize peace and stability of the nation.  Second, this addition can take another several, making it mission impossible. However, the strength that can come with such integration will be enhanced domestic and international threat protection, which will enhance continuity in combating violence and extremism although it can lead to superiority battle between the two departments.

Critical Review of The local Role of Homeland Security by David Thacher Published in 2005.

Summary

The author in this article identifies the limits to the local role in Homeland Security through a critical analysis a case study of Dearborn, Michigan. The author has used Dearborn in the case study because it is a region inhabited majorly by the Arabs and highlights the burden cities incur when engaging in proactive surveillance in the name of fighting terrorists.

Author’s Position

The position of the author in this article is that cities that are prone to security threats or terrorism have all the reason to emphasize community protection which is an aspect of Homeland Security like targeting and hardening emergency response. The position of the author is that the fight against terrorism should be left to the Department of Homeland Security, not the local governments.

Analysis of the Article

This article provides valuable insight into the reason the role of community protection should be left to the Department of Homeland Security. According to the article, the involvement of local government in community protection has consequence. For instance, the involvement of cities in the identification of terrorist damage their reputation as well as police legitimacy. One would agree with the author's argument that terrorism is a global problem and should be fought by the federal government. However, the article fails to provide or present the role of community policing, which is equally important in maintaining internal security. It would have important if the author provides the role of the police and politics of policing since the two also occupy a position in the federal government system.

Practical Application of the Article

The lesson learned in this article that can be applied by the Department of Homeland Security is that the department should come up with a surveillance method that does not undermine the trust between the community and the police. The weakness of Homeland Security Department, according to the reading is that at times, homeland security officials use proactive surveillance to identify potential terrorists which is dangerous not only to its operation but also damage its reputation. However, if the department can put measures in place to ensure that it remains objective in its operation and surveillance techniques, it can achieve a milestone in the fight against terrorism and other aspects of security. Implementation of these ideas requires further training of Homeland Security officials, especially on surveillance issues; hence, this would require extra cost to initiate. The result would be pumping more resources to the Homeland Security department and less to the community policing, which also plays a vital role in enhancing security at the local level.

Critical Review of Perceptual Framing of Homeland Security by Kiltz and Ramsay Published in 2012

Summary

This article examines Homeland Security phenomenon through the development of conceptual lenses created out of pieces of literature in public administration, criminal justice, risk management, and organization behavior. The article recognizes that Homeland Security is a broad field that incorporates technological, natural, and human-made hazards.

Authors’ Position

The position of the authors in this article is that terrorism remains an effective proxy for the conceptualization of Homeland Security and structuring of the theoretical foundations. According to the article, some challenges in Homeland Security policies and theories make it hard for the Department of Homeland Security to address modern hazards and threats amicably.

Analysis of The Article

The article provides an insightful understanding of Homeland Security and its role in mitigating modern security hazards and threats. It examines Homeland Security in four conceptual lenses, including HS as an international relation problem and views terrorism as war, HS as an organizational design problem, HS as a criminal justice problem, and HS as a collaborative nexus of diplomatic and law enforcement. Although the authors describe these lenses to bring the understanding of people on HS, they have not documented and addressed the challenges faced by Homeland Security in mitigating modern threats and hazards. It will have been better if the authors describe how each of the lenses highlighted complement HS in addressing the security challenges.

Practical Application

The lesson learned from this article is that modern threats have become complex and difficult to understand; hence, Homeland Security should re-evaluate its role in addressing these modern threats and hazards. The threats that emerge from this reading is that Homeland Security is addressing security issues, some who keep evolving, and this makes it difficult to completely address these emerging challenges without a proper understanding of the same. Therefore, it is important for the government to continue analyzing the existing conceptual lenses as they relate to Homeland Security. The Department of Homeland Security should carry out multiple frame analysis to analyze the previous attacks that can morph into new forms. However, implementation of this strategy requires resources which might be limited, leading to a potential barrier to the strategy implementation.

Critical Review of Assessing Homeland Security Risks: A Comparative Risk Assessment of 10 Hazards by Russell Lundberg and Henry Willis published in 2015

Summary

This article provides an insight into how Homeland Security can utilize qualitative comparative risk assessment method in its approach to strategic planning. Ten Homeland Security risks are examined in a systematic fashion, and the baseline knowledge obtained is important in risk management and subsequent competitive risk assessment studies.

Authors’ Position

The position of the author in this article is that the initial step in making decisions in the homeland security domain by comprehending the risk. According to the authors, the effort of Homeland Security in reducing the risk must consider the efficiency of the process as well as liberty and equity. As such, quantitative estimates alone cannot be used in decision-making in Homeland Security.

Analysis of the Article

            The authors in this article present a shared starting point for a comparative assessment of Homeland security Risks based on the recommendation by the National Academies panel. While the article presents a common framework to examine Homeland Security Risks, the comparative method used does not determine the cause-effect relationship. Hence, the authors would have reported the findings of their comparative risk assessment as a possible correlation, not as a definitive correlation.

Practical Applications

According to the findings of this article, the lesson that can be learned is that there are sufficient open source data that can be used to describe Homeland Security risks. The Department of Homeland Security can thus take advantage of these open source data to estimate the risks and initiate mitigation strategies. The threat that the article outlines is that the Department of Homeland Security still lacks the mechanism, and this might be dangerous to the internal security of the nation. The possible barrier to implementation of the idea gathered here can be lack of accessibility of the open source data because of the limited research capacity at the Department of Homeland security. But when implemented, this idea can result in early threat detection, thereby enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of the Department of Homeland Security.

Critical Review of Community Policing and Homeland Security Policing: Friend or Foe? by Chappell and Gibson Published in 2009

Summary

This article examines the compatibility of Homeland Security and community policing using the data from Virginia police chiefs and finds that such compatibility is not evident.

Author’s Position

The position of the author is that community policing should complement Homeland Security as opposed to running them as parallel entities.

Analysis of the Article

The authors provide valuable insight into the understanding of the new policing philosophy and explain the role of community policing and Homeland Security. The information concerning the compatibility of community policing and Homeland Security is based on the data obtained through an interview with police chiefs from Virginia. The findings here are not generalizable because of the sample size used. Smaller sample size decreases statistical power as well as validity and reliability of the result. To this effect, the authors should have used a larger sample size by incorporating other police departments from other states and apply a sampling method that does not result in sampling bias.

Practical Application

This article presents evidence on the need for incorporating community policing into Homeland Security operations. This can be one-way Homeland Security can enhance its effectiveness and its operations down to the local communities. The Department of Homeland Security can take this advantage and incorporate community policing in its strategies. However, this is an expensive and costly venture, and its implementation will require a lot of time.

Critical Review of Homeland Security Preparedness and Planning in U.S. City Governments: A Survey of City Managers by Reddick Christopher Published in 2007

Summary

This article examines the preparedness and planning of Homeland Security with the primary aim to generate various research theme that relates to collaborative, organizational, and adaptive management elements of homeland security. The key finding in this article is that there is a high level of coordination and collaboration among cities and other levels of governments in the planning and preparedness of Homeland Security. However, lack of money and security concerns remains the major concerns to Homeland Security.

Author’s Position

According to the author, the collaboration that exists in Homeland Security preparedness is healthy for its operation in mitigating threats.

Analysis of the Article

The article presents a critical analysis of Homeland Security in terms of planning and preparedness and provides insightful information on the level of collaboration between cities and other levels of government. According to the authors, 32 percent of city managers view the color-coded Homeland Security advisory system as ineffective. The assessment may be accurate, but the authors should have elaborated how they arrived at this percentage because it appears to be an assumption which should be made clear in the research.

Practical Application

One of the major issues that arose in this article is the lack of money and personnel limitation. Therefore, the Department of Homeland Security should marshal for funding, particularly for its administrative or management issues to enhance its preparedness. Lack of enough money is the major threat to the preparedness of Homeland Security, and the same remains the potential barrier to implementation of strategies that can enhance the department's preparedness.

Critical Review of Reorganizing for National Security and Homeland Security by Newmann William Published in 2002

Summary

By reflecting on the post-September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S., the article examines the new threat environment and the decision-making structure of the U.S. It examines the role of homeland security in the new threat environment and factors that jeopardize the function and operation of Homeland Security

Author’s Position

According to the author, the organizational challenges are what complicate the government’s preparation and implementation of major homeland defense mission. These challenges originate from rivalry among cabinet-staff, executive-legislative, National Security Council, and Homeland Security Council.

Article Analysis

The author provides insightful information on the challenges that complicate the major homeland defense mission. Additionally, he identifies the rivalries among the government entities but fails to provide the recommendation to address the rivalries so that the Department of Homeland Security can be able to discharge its duty and meet its objective. It would have been good for the author to provide the theoretical or literature backing to these factors that complicate the Homeland Security preparedness.

Practical Application

In this article, the interagency model embodied in the Homeland Security Council is a better fit given the nature of the threat, the dire need for coordination, and the realities of the decision-making of the government. The Department of Homeland Security can thus consider addressing the organizational challenges as highlighted in this article to pave the way for the implementation of its major defense mission. Nevertheless, the identified rivalry will remain a challenge to the implementation of the homeland defense mission. When the recommendation in these readings are implemented, Homeland Security can be in a better position to effectively discharge its duties

Conclusion

Homeland security is a major public policy issue in the U.S. Although the literature of Homeland Security is growing, the growth remains unbalanced since local and federal perspective remains under inquiry. However, the Department of Homeland Security is the most important government's reorganization and one of the most significant reorganizations of federal agencies placing various military departments under the secretary of defense. The mentioned agency has merged all the federal functions, and it has incorporated various government agencies into a single large organization. The escalation of global security threats has called for security protection, which is an aspect of Homeland Security. Several researchers have researched Homeland Security, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses and offered recommendation and suggestions to enhance its effectiveness.

 

References

Chappell, A. T., & Gibson, S. A. (2009). Community Policing And Homeland Security Policing: Friend Or Foe?. Criminal Justice Policy Review20(3), 326-343.

Cutrer, D., (2012). Developing A Homeland Security Curriculum: A Case Study in Outcomes-Based Education Using the Delphi Method. Retrieved from https://commons.erau.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1345&context=publication

Karimi, B. P., (2015). Security and Prosperity: Reexamining the Connection Between Economic, Homeland, and National Security. Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States.

Kiltz, L., & Ramsay, J. D., (2012). Perceptual Framing of Homeland Security. Homeland Security Affairs8(15), 1.

Lundberg, R., & Willis, H. (2015). Assessing Homeland Security Risks: A Comparative Risk Assessment Of 10 Hazards. Homeland Security Affairs11(10).

Mathias, C. P., (2012). Implementing Homeland Security Policy in The US States: A Comparative State Study (Doctoral dissertation, Northeastern University).

Newmann, W. W., (2002). Reorganizing for National Security and Homeland Security. Public Administration Review62, 126-137.

Reddick, C. G., (2007). Homeland Security Preparedness and Planning in US City Governments: A Survey of City Managers. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management15(3), 157-167.

Thacher, D., (2005). The Local Role in Homeland Security. Law & Society Review39(3), 635-676.

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