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Sample Essay Paper on Ethical Concerns in Artificial Intelligence: Disinformation and Inequality

Ethical Concerns in Artificial Intelligence: Disinformation and Inequality

Part 1: Ethical Concerns Arising from Artificial Intelligence

Research poizes artificial intelligence as a transformative technology that will enhance human life. However, the technology raises pertinent ethical concerns and threats to the well-being of human beings. For starters, Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) accelerates the propagation of fake media and disinformation (Walch, 2019). A.I. exploits the vulnerabilities in the systems to create misleading or false information intended to cause chaos or misunderstanding. It is easy to create false videos, photos, or audio, which makes it hard for people to trust what they see, read, or hear. For instance, Cuthbertson (2018) intimates that deep fakes had risen concerns among celebrities and politicians over the imposition of their images in explicit videos. Criminals can use technology to harm people or businesses by spreading malicious fake images or even interfere with government operations. The increased uptake of A.I. has increased the creation and spread of fake news and disinformation, which create enmity between people and between countries.

Secondly, unemployment concerns have arisen with the increased uptake of A.I. into the workplaces. There is a connection between the increased use of A.I. and increased unemployment levels (Ma et al., 2018). Most businesses objectified at profit maximization may layoff employees and increase the unemployment rate. The technologies will thus yield inequality as the rich save more money while the poor lack growth opportunities. For instance, Tesla's advances in automated buses will increase the sector's unemployment rate as the drivers become obsolete. Increased unemployment in different industries infers that the rich will get richer while the poor will wallow in poverty and heighten inequality.

References

Cuthbertson, A. (2018). What Is Deepfake Porn? A.I. Brings Face-Swapping to a Disturbing New Level. Newsweek. https://www.newsweek.com/what-deepfake-porn-ai-brings-face-swapping-disturbing-new-level-801328

Ma, L., Zhang, Z., Zhang, N. (2018). Ethical Dilemma of Artificial Intelligence and its Research Progress. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 392, 1-4. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/392/6/062188

Walch, K. (2019). Ethical Concerns of A.I. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/cognitiveworld/2020/12/29/ethical-concerns-of-ai/?sh=22c8a0c23a8f

Part 2: Annotated Bibliography

Flores, J. M. (2019). Artificial intelligence and journalism: diluting the impact of disinformation and fake news through bots. Doxa Comunicación, 29, pp. 197-212.

The article indicates how the increased spread of fake news and disinformation dents credibility. The author asserts that malicious people use A.I. to create toxic environments for personal gains by influencing and manipulating perceptions. The article is essential for the study as it elaborates how factions of the media create and generate misinformation to influence perceptions and the ethical standards it breaches.

Puutio, A. & Timis, D. (2020). Deepfake democracy: Here's how modern elections could be decided by fake news. World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/10/deepfake-democracy-could-modern-elections-fall-prey-to-fiction/

The article indicates how modern elections could be influenced by untrue information as generated and propagated to targeted consumers. It gives examples of the U.K. 2017 elections and the U.S. 2016 presidential elections marred by political bots. The bots developed and propagated information to targeted people objectified at influencing their voting patterns. The article is essential as it outlines the impact of A.I. on democracy and elections.

Kertysova, K. (2018). Artificial Intelligence and Disinformation: How A.I. Changes the Way Disinformation is Produced, Disseminated, and Can Be Countered. Security and Human Rights, 29, 55-81.

            The article outlines the opportunities and challenges posed by advances in technology, especially A.I. in information and communication. It examines how A.I. can fight disinformation by outlining the shortcomings of the technology and its threats, including microtargeting, profiling, and deep fakes. It raises ethical awareness of face-swapping people's images on videos and the adverse impacts.

Goyal, A. & Aneja, R. (2020). Artificial intelligence and income inequality: Do technological changes and worker's position matter? Journal of Public Affairs, 20(4), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2326

            The article asserts that incorporating A.I. in the job market has led to mass unemployment leading to social inequalities. It studies how, after A.I., the income working processes and positions of employees changed. The study determined a negative correlation between incomes and technological advancements. The article is essential for the study as it explores the ethical issues that arise due to increased unemployment and inequality levels. 

Part 3: Policy Paper Building

Technological advancements have positive and negative impacts on society. While technology increases productivity, improves quality and leads to economic growth, its application has negative ethical impacts that have become rampant. Goyal & Aneja (2020) note that Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) increased economic growth but is poised to lead to mass unemployment in the future. They also note that A.I.'s continued applicability would lead to inequality in terms of the technologies used and wealth generation in society. Artificial intelligence will also contribute to disinformation, making it difficult for people to trust what they read, see, and hear in the news. Kertysova (2018) intimate that A.I.'s continued application would reduce people's ability to differentiate real and unreal news. While artificial intelligence plays a critical role in economic development by increasing resources' productivity, it will contribute to social and technological inequalities to widen the gap between the rich and the poor and increase the propagation of disinformation.

Artificial intelligence plays an active role in disseminating fake information for malicious purposes. The political class has used A.I. to disinform the public and create perceptions to manipulate election outcomes. A case example includes the 2016 presidential election, which the Internet Research Agency manipulated, a Russian troll farm, as investigators found out (Murphy 2020). The A.I. processes and machine learning can predict the outcomes of elections. They can also influence people's perceptions of a preferred candidate through the thought and emotional aspects. Using deep fakes technologies like FaceSwap Apps, malicious parties can falsify evidence to appear like candidates who committed an offense. They can also use A.I. means like bots to propagate the disinformation that raises concerns about an individual's character or mental status. Further, malicious actors can create fictitious information aimed at spurring controversy or spreading hate and divisions within society. Puutio and Timis (2020) show how malicious candidates have successfully leveraged deep fakes to destabilize political processes and governments in countries like Malaysia, Gabon, and Belgium. In this regard, people can apply A.I. maliciously to topple governments and influence election outcomes.

Artificial intelligence interferes with the administration of democracy and infringes on the privacy rights of individuals. Previously, politicians relied on instincts to gauge political temperatures, but A.I. has introduced an insight dimension to check campaign effectiveness (Flores, 2019). As earlier alluded, A.I. can use algorithms to manipulate voters' tendencies. For instance, Polonski (2017) alludes that candidates sent varying messages to voters based on their susceptibility to specific arguments using sophisticated systems. For example, conservancy disposition attracted traditional and community messages, while paranoid voters received fear messages. A.I. thus influenced democratic processes of electing leaders and used personal information to drive the objectives.  

The 2017 political bots used in the U.K. to spread disinformation also influenced elections. Specific demographic groups were fed with negative social media messages about some candidates (Polonski, 2017). Deepfake has also received a lot of criticism for face-swapping celebrities in indecent acts. As A.I. becomes more sophisticated, it will be increasingly difficult to differentiate real from unreal videos as the technology will produce almost the same videos as the original videos. The technologies allow people to transpose images in videos to appear as though a person committed the acts in a video when he or she did not(Kertvsova, 2018). Consumers’ inability to differentiate fake videos from real ones tarnishes the celebrities' names and may lead to broken families and increased social ills.

Despite Artificial Intelligence’s gains, it is expected to destabilize the job market, increase inequality, and increase social ills. Experts have raised concerns that A.I. will raise the unemployment levels in the future. According to Technology Org. (2017), A.I. is set to eliminate 25% of the U.S. jobs, especially the repetitive tasks that can be easily automated. The technology is projected to affect diverse industries, including agriculture, manufacturing, hospitality, among others, in varying capacities. On the other, A.I. has been hailed due to its effectiveness in cutting costs, improving quality, and profit maximization in firms (Hadley, 2020). However, smaller firms without adequate financial muscles to invest in expensive technologies may have problems in releasing competitive products at competitive prices. For instance, when firms using A.I. release quality products and sell them cheaply, the firms without resources will be unable to sell their products perceived as below-par. The technological inequalities will also increase social inequalities as the rich will get richer while the poor will get even more destitute. Further, the increased unemployment level will also affect the social status to result in a society with super-wealthy individuals while the jobless will live in abject poverty. Gries (2018) asks whether A.I. will lead to human labor's obsolescence as capitalists focused on increasing productivity. Goyal & Aneja (2020) also determine that the income gap had increased between medium skills jobs and high skills jobs. Research conducted indicates that A.I. will increase inequality in the society where wealth will concentrate on the wealthy while exacerbating poverty.  

Artificial intelligence helps increase the breadth of information shared and quickens the process while introducing more accurate targeting information. Although it increases the scope of freedom of expression, it also interferes with the formation and generation of opinions, information access, and autonomy of making decisions. A.I. increases the freedom of expression and introduces an aspect of infringement on individual privacy. For instance, facial recognition technologies may yield pertinent questions on how the state uses the information it collects. Therefore, AI can create personal data with information that is not consensually provided by individuals.

Further, the presentation of forged evidence also infers that A.I. is an enabler of copyright infringement. A.I. poses ethical dilemmas, especially on the question of who should be held accountable if a mistake occurs. Other ethical concerns have arisen from the algorithms being fed into the technologies, given that people can input algorithms that propagate discrimination.

The solution to ethical concerns raised by A.I. is multifaceted, touching on the producers and the users. As noted above, A.I.'s application also plays a part in propagating social inequalities, increasing social ills. Siau & wang (2020) opine that people need ethical A.I. based on transparency, data security and privacy, autonomy, intentionality, and responsibility. They also aver that people should remain accountable, consider ethical standards, and laws of human rights in applying the technologies. The outlined proposed ethical standards align with virtue ethics, which focuses on a character's role and moral philosophy's values rather than being a consequentialist. It suggests that people using the technologies should act as a virtuous person would in a similar situation. In this regard, artificial intelligence should incorporate virtue ethics principles by requiring its users to act virtuously at all times, both in developing the technologies and in their use.

 

References

Flores, J. M. (2019). Artificial intelligence and journalism: diluting the impact of disinformation and fake news through bots. Doxa Comunicación, 29, pp. 197-212.

Goyal, A. & Aneja, R. (2020). Artificial intelligence and income inequality: Do technological changes and worker's position matter? Journal of Public Affairs, 20(4), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2326

Gries, T. & Naude, W. (2018). Artificial Intelligence, Jobs, Inequality and Productivity: Does Aggregate Demand Matter? Discussion Paper Series of Institute of Labor Economics, http://ftp.iza.org/dp12005.pdf

Hadley, J. (2020). Artificial Intelligence and Rising Inequality. The Undergraduate Research Writing Conference, https://sites.rutgers.edu/nb-senior-exhibits/wp-content/uploads/sites/442/2020/08/James-Hadley-final-pdf.pdf

Kertysova, K. (2018). Artificial Intelligence and Disinformation: How A.I. Changes the Way Disinformation is Produced, Disseminated, and Can Be Countered. Security and Human Rights, 29, 55-81.

Murphy, H. (2020). The new A.I. tools spreading fake news in politics and business. Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/55a39e92-8357-11ea-b872-8db45d5f6714

Polonski, V. (2017). How artificial intelligence conquered democracy. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/how-artificial-intelligence-conquered-democracy-77675

Puutio, A. & Timis, D. (2020). Deepfake democracy: Here's how modern elections could be decided by fake news. World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/10/deepfake-democracy-could-modern-elections-fall-prey-to-fiction/

Siau, K. & Wang, W. (2020). Artificial intelligence (A.I.) Ethics: Ethics of A.I. and Ethical A.I. Journal of Database Management, 31(2), 74-87.

Technology Org. (2017). The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Unemployment. https://www.technology.org/2019/12/17/the-impact-of-artificial-intelligence-on-unemployment/#:~:text=The%20Impact%20of%20AI%20on,entire%20job%20industries%20could%20disappear.

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